We find that prostitute women are underrepresented in the national surveys. Prostitutes' Number of Partners. View popup Table 1 Unadjusted and prostitution-adjusted ratios of the number of sexual partners reported by heterosexual men to the number reported by heterosexual women Adjusting the Discrepancy for Prostitution To assess how much of the discrepancy prostitution can explain, we estimated the prevalence of prostitute women and their number of partners and then compared these estimates with observations in the GSS and NHSLS. In our analysis, we evaluated sampling bias related to prostitution as an explanation for the disparity. Measuring the Discrepancy Data. Foreign men visiting the United States also tend to be younger than men from the United States traveling overseas. Second, prostitute women's work schedule usually beginning in the late afternoon and often stretching into the early morning 22 conflicts with the GSS interviewers' schedule weekdays after 3:
If you have any questions regarding this matter, contact your local police department or county sheriff's office. In merging information from different sources, we sometimes excluded observations from particular studies or adjusted estimates of key parameters as detailed below to ensure that the age ranges of respondents and partnerships reported in the different studies were comparable. Kimball Romney, Michael Wiederman, and four anonymous reviewers provided helpful comments. Our analyses of the GSS are based on data from to combined. Our calculations for the 5-year recall period followed those for the month recall period except that we i defined prostitutes as heterosexual women who reported ever having received payment or paid for sex GSS or been paid by a man for sex NHSLS and were younger than age 45 sometime in the last 5 years; ii multiplied the expected number of prostitutes' partnerships by 5; and iii for the NHSLS, corrected for partnerships between prostitutes and men who were age 55—59 in the last 5 years but older than 59 at the time of the NHSLS, based on data from the Colorado Springs study reported by clients of prostitutes. We opted for the more conservative estimate based on doubling the 6-month mean. Prostitution allows men to accrue new partners at a higher rate than nonprostitute women, which causes the unadjusted ratios to increase with longer recall periods. Then, for each survey and recall period, we computed the total numbers of partnerships reported by heterosexual men and women in the United States based on i the proportions of men and women in the survey sample who were heterosexual, ii census figures from GSS and NHSLS http: If you are not sure what the numbers are click the reload icon next to the image for a different image. These 10 other studies of prostitute women in 17 different communities involving a total of 2, women either did not include representative samples of prostitutes or used recall periods less appropriate for estimating the number of partners in a year. These results suggest that respondents' reports of the number of their sex partners, although possibly limited in other ways, may not be significantly affected by sex-linked reporting bias. We obtained very similar results to those in Table 1 when we used only the data from the open-ended GSS questions about numbers of partners and when we included data on bisexuals, treating them as if they were heterosexuals. Prostitution's role in the discrepancy is not readily apparent because men are reluctant to acknowledge that their reported partners include prostitutes. Because prostitute women in Colorado Springs have a mean career length of 5 years 15 , prostitute women in this sample most likely worked as prostitutes for only 2. The ratios of the total number of sex partners heterosexual men report to the number heterosexual women report see Table 1 show substantial sex disparities, as indicated by their departure from the expected value of 1. In a probability sample of year-olds in Detroit, the sex discrepancy ratio in reported number of lifetime sexual partners is 1. For the month recall period, we estimated the adult prostitute prevalence rate to be The information collected is subject to the same controls and uses as that collected by governmental offices visited in person, again subject to the access and confidentiality provisions of Chapter 22, or to other applicable sections of the Code of Iowa. If she had an above-average number of partners for a prostitute and primarily male partners, her report might eliminate most or all of the discrepancy. The studies of prostitutes and their clients, however, often involved some juveniles and individuals over age Article published online before print: After adjusting for these prostitution-related factors, the ratios for the sex discrepancy in the reported number of sexual partners hover slightly above and below 1 see Table 1 , indicating that prostitution can account for essentially all of the disparity. Because studies cited in the supplementary material show that virtually all working prostitutes are under age 45, we computed the number of women aged 18—44 in a survey expected to be prostitutes from this adult prevalence rate, census figures, and a survey sample's age distribution. Access to personally identifiable information in public records at state and local levels of government in Iowa is controlled primarily by Chapter 22 of the Code of Iowa. We then computed the expected total number of partnerships reported by prostitutes by multiplying the expected number of prostitutes by , the estimated mean number of partners for prostitutes in a year.
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