Since data in both figures are in dollars, this documents a decline in real income for scientists and engineers between and In anticipation of time out of the labor market, women may choose to invest less in on the job training or employers may invest less in female employees. For example, both men and women with bachelor's degrees were more likely to have worked full time and full year in An alternative explanation is that the cohorts of women that received their Ph. There have been several proposed explanations for this gap in earnings: This is done initially by simply comparing the median salaries of men and women in, for example, the same fields or with the same year of Ph. The differing characteristics of men and women, such as in experience and field of study, can explain much of the gross gender difference in salary. According to the National Commission on Pay Equity , the shrinking gap is due to the gains women have made in real wages relative to men as a result of increasing years of work experience, increasing equality of education, improved market skills, and the decreased number of high-paying jobs for men. For details on the concepts, definitions and variables used in the Census of Population, please consult the Dictionary, Census of Population, , Catalogue no.
Studies of gender differences in salary for scientists and engineers can be divided into two groups. Each of these dimensions of the career is associated with differences in salary and we find generally that women are more likely to be in positions associated with lower salaries. While large, the earnings gap between male and female doctoral scientists and engineers is much smaller than the gap in the entire U. Earlier chapters showed that due to the increasing entry of women in recent years, female scientists and engineers are on average younger than their male counterparts. Even if salary is based entirely on productivity, early disadvantages in employment for women may lead to a pay gap that will grow over the course of their careers. Earnings also include other income, such as tips, commissions and cash bonuses associated with paid employment. When interpreting results based on these synthetic cohorts, it is impossible to differentiate empirically between alternative explanations of the results. Many of these studies of salary are restricted to academics, such as Barbezat , Farber , Gregorio, Lewis, and Wanner , Johnson and Stafford , and Tolbert , or a single field such as Hansen, Weisbrod, and Strauss or Morgan For more information on 'highest certificate, diploma or degree', please see the Dictionary, Census of Population, , Catalogue no. When this analysis was conducted while controlling for the age differences between these educational groups, the overall results remained the same. Single institution studies have the advantage of more detailed data on each individual and are based on a more complete understanding of the nuances of the local context of employment, but they are limited by the unique characteristics of that institution. While gross gender differences in salaries for scientists and engineers have not narrowed since , salary is the outcome of a stratification process that involves many steps, each of which is associated with differences in pay. The median salaries of male scientists and engineers have remained about percent higher than those of full-time men in the general population, while the median income of female scientists and engineers have declined from being percent greater than those of women in the general population in to around percent greater in later years. The first thing to note is that the salaries for both men and women are lower at all stages of the career compared to those in We find that men have had a nearly constant 20 percent advantage in salary during the 23 years from to A second type of study uses a large sample to study differences across fields, and often across sectors of employment. Instead, each year of the career corresponds to a different Ph. The effects of the control variables were allowed to differ by gender. An alternative explanation is that the cohorts of women that received their Ph. Because salaries are the result of interactions between supply and demand, increases in supply will put downward pressure on wages in these more female friendly subfields. This is done initially by simply comparing the median salaries of men and women in, for example, the same fields or with the same year of Ph. Reasons for these differences are discussed in the summary. It includes for example, Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science. In the remainder of this chapter, we decompose the overall gender differences in salaries, attempting to determine the degree to which men and women with similar characteristics are paid differently. Since salary is strongly affected by years of experience Ahern and Scott , even if women were compensated in the same way as men, we would expect the average salary for the younger population of women to be lower than that of men.
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