The range size hypothesis [ 8 — 10 ] predicts that sex differences will occur in species in which one sex has a larger range than the other, a pattern that results from the mating system. We also show that about one-third of the effect can be explained by differences in education. The underlying forces at work shaping the observed spatial ability differences revolve naturally around the relative roles of nature and nurture. The participants must choose which of a set of unfolded papers with holes corresponds to the one they have just seen. Both tribes are located in the hills surrounding the city of Shillong, and the Karbi and Khasi appear to be close kin, based on genetic analysis of six polymorphic loci However, the comparison between these societies is hard to interpret, because these societies are not only culturally but also ethnically dissimilar, and this paper fails to report a significant interaction between society and gender. There are plausible mechanisms. Though valuable insights have been gained from this work, further advances in evolutionary theory can be achieved by testing additional species. In contrast, female hormonal and behavioural changes are limited to a brief oestrous period in early spring [ 11 , 13 ].
Although these forces remain among the most hotly debated in all of the sciences, the evidence for nurture is tenuous, because it is difficult to compare gender differences among biologically similar groups with distinct nurture. Depleted feeders were not visually apparent or distinct from other feeders [ 20 ]. Alternatively, the fertility and parental care hypothesis proposes that sex differences do not necessarily occur because of a male advantage, but because of a female disadvantage during certain periods of the reproductive cycle [ 6 , 7 ]. One way to provide unambiguous support for this hypothesis is to demonstrate the presence of a relationship between sex differences and range size outside the breeding season [ 2 ]. Subjects were tested from November to February , a period that corresponds to male range expansion and testosterone elevation [ 11 , 12 ], but no behavioural or physiological indicators of oestrus in females were observed. As our own society became more egalitarian, gender differences in spatial abilities have not shown consistent reductions 6. The participants must choose which of a set of unfolded papers with holes corresponds to the one they have just seen. In , Kim Vicente and colleagues ran a battery of cognitive tests on a set of participants and then determined which cognitive abilities correlated with performance on a computerized information search task. Could this gender gap in spatial reasoning be substantially driven by nurture? The Surface Development test involves giving participants a flat shape with numbered sides and a three-dimensional shape with lettered sides and asking the participants to indicate which numbered side corresponds to which lettered side. The range size hypothesis [ 8 — 10 ] predicts that sex differences will occur in species in which one sex has a larger range than the other, a pattern that results from the mating system. Both tribes are located in the hills surrounding the city of Shillong, and the Karbi and Khasi appear to be close kin, based on genetic analysis of six polymorphic loci We also show that about one-third of the effect can be explained by differences in education. All subjects were born and reared in captivity with the exception of one panda cub who was born in the wild but brought into captivity at approximately six months old. The villagers in both societies are agriculturalist and subsist primarily off rice, with little variation in wealth or diet. Abstract Women remain significantly underrepresented in the science, engineering, and technology workforce. Spatial abilities are used in major discoveries in physics and chemistry 1 and are correlated with success in engineering courses 5 , the decision to major in the physical sciences 5 , and performance on the Test of Mechanical Reasoning and the Bennett Mechanical Comprehension Test 6. This phenomenon has been investigated from proximate and ultimate perspectives, with hormones representing the most likely proximate mechanism for the difference [ 3 — 5 ]. However, the comparison between these societies is hard to interpret, because these societies are not only culturally but also ethnically dissimilar, and this paper fails to report a significant interaction between society and gender. In contrast, female hormonal and behavioural changes are limited to a brief oestrous period in early spring [ 11 , 13 ]. They found that the only significant predictors of performance were vocabulary and spatial visualization ability, and that those with high spatial visualization ability were twice as fast to perform the task as those with lower levels of spatial visualization ability. By testing for sex differences in spatial ability during the period of male range expansion, but prior to female oestrus, we can provide support for the range size hypothesis while controlling for the potential effect of decreased female spatial ability during oestrus. There are plausible mechanisms. We predicted that promiscuous male giant pandas would make fewer errors than females on a spatial memory task, but there would be no sex differences in the performance of monogamous Asian small-clawed otters. However, direct evidence that nurture matters is lacking. Some of our subjects also answered survey questions.
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DownloadHuman Spatial Abilities Sources of Sex Differences Pdf
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